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High Resistance Voltmeter

The full-scale deflection of the universal high-input-resistance voltmeter circuit shown in the figure depends on the function switch position as follows:
(a) 5V dc on position 1
(b) 5V ac rms in position 2
(c) 5V peak ac in position 3
(d) 5V ac peak-to-peak in position 4
The circuit is basically a voltage-to-current converter. The design procedure is as follows:
Calculate RI according to the application from one of the following equations:
(a) dc voltmeter: RIA = full-scale EDC/IFS
(b) rms ac voltmeter (sine wave only): RIB = 0.9 full-scale ERMS/ IFS
(c) Peak reading voltmeter (sine wave only): RIC = 0.636 full-scale EPK/IFS
(d) Peak-to-peak ac voltmeter (sine wave only): RID = 0.318 full-scale EPK-TO-PK / IFS
The term IFS in the above equations refers to meter?s full-scale deflection current rating in amperes.
It must be noted that neither meter resistance nor diode voltage drops affects meter current.
A high-input-resistance op-amp, a bridge rectifier, a microammeter, and a few other discrete components are all that are required to realise this versatile circuit. This circuit can be used for measurement of dc, ac rms, ac peak, or ac peak-to-peak voltage by simply changing the value of the resistor connected between the inverting input terminal of the op-amp and ground. The voltage to be measured is connected to non-inverting input of the op-amp.

                        TABLE I
Position
1 of Function Switch
Edc input    Meter Current

5.00V            44 ?A

4.00V            34 ?A

3.00V            24 ?A

2.00V            14 ?A

1.00V
4 ?A

TABLE II

Position 2 of Function Switch

Erms input    Meter Current

5V
46 ?A

4V
36 ?A

3V
26 ?A

2V
18 ?A

1V
10 ?A

TABLE III

Position 3 of Function Switch

EPk input      Meter Current

5V peak
46 ?A

4V peak
36 ?A

3V peak
26 ?A

2V peak
16 ?A

1V peak
6 ?A

TABLE IV

Position 4 of Function Switch
EPk-To-Pk
Meter Current

5V peak to peak
46 ?A
4V peak to peak
36 ?A
3V peak to peak
26 ?A
2V peak to peak
16 ?A
1V peak to peak
7 ?A

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