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# High Resistance Voltmeter

The full-scale deflection of the universal high-input-resistance voltmeter circuit shown in the figure depends on the function switch position as follows:
(a) 5V dc on position 1
(b) 5V ac rms in position 2
(c) 5V peak ac in position 3
(d) 5V ac peak-to-peak in position 4
The circuit is basically a voltage-to-current converter. The design procedure is as follows:
Calculate RI according to the application from one of the following equations:
(a) dc voltmeter: RIA = full-scale EDC/IFS
(b) rms ac voltmeter (sine wave only): RIB = 0.9 full-scale ERMS/ IFS
(c) Peak reading voltmeter (sine wave only): RIC = 0.636 full-scale EPK/IFS
(d) Peak-to-peak ac voltmeter (sine wave only): RID = 0.318 full-scale EPK-TO-PK / IFS
The term IFS in the above equations refers to meter?s full-scale deflection current rating in amperes.
It must be noted that neither meter resistance nor diode voltage drops affects meter current.
A high-input-resistance op-amp, a bridge rectifier, a microammeter, and a few other discrete components are all that are required to realise this versatile circuit. This circuit can be used for measurement of dc, ac rms, ac peak, or ac peak-to-peak voltage by simply changing the value of the resistor connected between the inverting input terminal of the op-amp and ground. The voltage to be measured is connected to non-inverting input of the op-amp.

 TABLE I Position 1 of Function Switch Edc input    Meter Current 5.00V            44 ?A 4.00V            34 ?A 3.00V            24 ?A 2.00V            14 ?A 1.00V 4 ?A TABLE II Position 2 of Function Switch Erms input    Meter Current 5V 46 ?A 4V 36 ?A 3V 26 ?A 2V 18 ?A 1V 10 ?A TABLE III Position 3 of Function Switch EPk input      Meter Current 5V peak 46 ?A 4V peak 36 ?A 3V peak 26 ?A 2V peak 16 ?A 1V peak 6 ?A TABLE IV Position 4 of Function Switch EPk-To-Pk Meter Current 5V peak to peak 46 ?A 4V peak to peak 36 ?A 3V peak to peak 26 ?A 2V peak to peak 16 ?A 1V peak to peak 7 ?A

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